Saturday, December 10, 2016

Double Barreled Defense
The short-barreled double barrel shotgun with hammers is often called a coach gun or side-by-side shotgun.
This type of shotgun was once the preferred weapon to guard stagecoaches. Many years before the type was used in the Old West, the coach gun was used to guard European coaches from dangerous highwaymen. This coach gun was at times called the Blunderbuss.
Coach guns are formidable shotguns capable of defending the home. The pump shotgun and the self-loader are more complex, more expensive, and more difficult to train with. There is nothing simpler than the hammer-fired double-barrel shotgun save a single-shot shotgun.
I have seen many double-barrel shotguns at ready in the home or on the farm, and they are capable of dispatching unwanted pests and varmints as well as members of our protein fed ex-con criminal class. A different variant, the double-barrel striker-fired shotgun, was used by New York City cops until at least the 1970s.
The double barrel with two loads of buckshot was ideal for taking dangerous felons at gunpoint. With a powerful firearm and an instant second shot, coupled with excellent handling qualities, these shotguns filled a real need. A correspondent tells me his western police department kept double barrel shotguns in 20 gauge until at least the 1980s along with pump action 20 gauge shotguns. At close range making felony arrests in tight quarters, I am certain these were formidable firearms. The double barrel shotgun is an excellent all around shotgun for defense use and ideal for many of us.
This is a mix of birdshot and buckshot at 15 yards
 For personal defense, the double barrel handles quickly and points well. It isn’t well suited for tactical use by special teams, but for home defense the double barrel, particularly a short barrel coach gun, is ideal. Everyone’s budget and circumstance do not allow purchasing an expensive defensive shotgun. The double barrel is simple to use well. Simply break open the action and load the shells then close the action. To fire, cock the hammers and pull the trigger.
Each hammer is cocked individually. You may wish to cock them one at a time, or both at once in anticipation of firing. The modern Century Arms double barrel coach gun also features a handy tang mounted safety. I like this safety for use once the hammers are cocked; it is a good feature when moving in the home. Real safety is between the ears and involves keeping the finger off of the trigger until you fire. I recommend cocking only one hammer at a time until you are very familiar with the shotgun.
Hammers are cocked only when ready for action
The double barrel shotgun offers a formidable deterrent. From the images of old west guards riding shotgun on a stagecoach to the modern hammer-fired double, the double barrel has an unmistakable image and the threat of a double charge of buckshot. The modern hammer-fired double barrel has the advantage of simplicity.
The double barrel is also easy to train with. Another advantage is that with two loads, you can stage the load. A lighter load first and then buckshot for problems inside the home. The load may be changed quickly if the problem is a dangerous animal such as a rattlesnake just outside the door or a predator such as a coyote farther away. For those in an urban setting, the shotgun with proper loads makes for a good Brooklyn special. It is politically correct and legal where other types of long gun are not.
There is also the appeal of the shotgun as a low-key defensive shotgun that doesn’t have much negative connotation. The double barrel is about as politically correct as a shotgun can be. We wish we did not have to consider this, but sometimes we do. The double barrel is also fun to shoot. It is practical as well.
When all is said and done, the double barrel shotgun remains a formidable weapon for personal defense and outdoors use. These simple, rugged, and workmanlike shotguns are well suited to many traditional shotgun chores. These chores include serving as a go anywhere, do anything, all around tool for hunting, pest control, and personal defense
12 gauge has 2X the kick and payload of the 20 gauge
My personal Century Arms double barrel was ordered in 20 gauge. Available in both the hard hitting 12 gauge and the light kicking 20, I elected for the 20 gauge so everyone in the home could use the shotgun well. The 12 hits hard and may be your choice. The 20 gauge kicks about half as much as the 12 gauge and carried about 55% of the payload.
This is a neat little bead sighted shotgun that handles well. The hammers are not difficult to cock, and the triggers are crisp enough. The hinged action was stiff at first but became easier to use with a couple of trips to the range. The overall length is 37 inches, and the shotgun weighs about 7.5 pounds.
The double-barrel action is compact and allows for longer barrels while retaining a relatively short profile. The barrels are 20 inches long. The choke is open cylinder, well suited for home defense but not for hunting at anything past 20 yards with birdshot. Most of the shells fired have been Winchester’s 7 ½ birdshot. This is a great training load. The recoil is light, and the shotgun handles quickly and gets on target fast.
While I use birdshot for training, birdshot is by no means useful for personal defense. At best it will penetrate only a few inches of gelatin and would probably be stopped by winter clothing. On the other hand, Winchester’s #3 buckshot load holds 20 buckshot pellets. This load consistently offers a minimum of 12 inches of penetration in my testing and should cancel Christmas for the bad guys at typical home defense engagement.
With the open choke barrels of the coach gun, 15 yards is the limit for retaining a good pattern for best effect, which isn’t different from the average riot gun. For longer-range use, the Hornady 20 gauge Lite Slug is a great choice. Among a few high tech variants in 20 gauge slugs, this loading offers formidable effect at ranges longer than 25 yards. For home defense the Coach gun looks good. Affordable and powerful it is worth a look.
By Wilburn Roberts published on  
Republished from Cheaper Than Dirt Blog (highly recommended reading)

 JR COMMENTS - Facing a charging Grisly Bear, there is nothing I'd prefer to have more than a 12 Gauge Double Barreled Shotgun with either 00 Buck Shot or Slugs.  After having a 16 gauge growing up and later having a hard time getting ammo, I'm a little hesitant to buy a 20 gauge unless it was for a beginner or person with a small build and low recoil was important.
For additional information see the following links:
Blog Table of Contents

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Night Vision vs Thermal Vision

Photo from

Quality is improving and prices are coming down for tools that provide a critical tactical advantage for night time security. Every Prepper needs either Night Vision or Thermal Vision to protect his home and family from well prepared night time Home Invaders.  With out Intruder Detection, you could just be building up supplies for thieves and murderers.  Granted you can Salvage for supplies and obtain lots of things, but something like this will be a rare find.

Experienced military personnel wear their Vision Enhancement on their Helmet.Having it on your weapon or a hand held model means you need to hold it up to your face to scan for threats.

Here are a few options you might consider based on your budget:
  1. Hand held Night Vision Monocular for under $175.  This is an excellent, top rated, low budget starter tool. As you can afford it, you will want something better later, but someone on your Security Watch can still use this while you use your new one or you can keep one in your Security Pack
  2. Flir Thermal Vision (handheld) for under $600.  With this, I can see large game moving at 200 yards and identify them at 75 to 100 yards.  I can see and identify rabbits, skunks and other small game at 50 to 75 yards much better than even night vision costing five times more.  There are many types of Thermal Vision that allow you to see with varying clarity and at different distances.  This Flir Link shows some good examples along with the IR Hunter link under the picture above.
  3. Yukon offers a low cost head mount Night Vision Monocular for under $300.  Its not the best, but is a good starter one.
  4. The top of the line Night Vision is the PVS -14.  It comes with a weapons and helmet mount for well under $4,000. 00
  5. The top of the line Thermal Scopes are the Flir RS 64 starting at $5,500 and IR Hunter Mark II for about $6,500.
  6. There lower cost models like the Flir RS 32 starting at $3,800. 
  7. Also recommended with each of these are a number of rechargeable batteries and a Solar Battery Charger or a small solar system and a regular battery charger.
Most well planned modern attacks are likely to occur under the cover of darkness making night vision critical for Security and for Actionable Intelligence.

For additional information see the following links: 
Blog Table of Contents

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Monday, November 28, 2016

Civil War

Nothing symbolizes the tragic American Civil War better than the fallen Confederate Flag.  This war cost the lives of about 750,000 Americans or 2.39% of our entire population over 4 years.  This is the highest in history on a per capita basis by far and should serve as a lesson to those of us today.

With the diverse difference of opinions between the few highly populated states and the others, Secession from the Union is a far better alternative to a Civil War. The obvious alternative to either is to get along and respect the rights of others, and if the Federal Government was not so strong and domineering, this might work if the original intent of the US Constitution was respected. Each state could determine their own beliefs and laws. But this is unlikely to work when citizens in one state want to force their beliefs on another state, or even on an individual. Lets look at some divisive issues.
  1. Should a person be forced to bake a cake for a Gay couple? Should a Gay couple have to go else where to get a cake baked?  Does the US Constitution say ..Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof...?  Does the Gay couple have the right to force someone else to bake them a cake? 
  2. If I don't like guns or small worthless yappy dogs or big dangerous dogs, should the government regulate or ban them for everyone?  Does the US Constitution say ..the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed?  Does it say we have the right to keep a dog?  Oh, but guns kill people .... right but Abortion doctors kill over 20 times more than guns and all of them are defenseless babies, not criminals shooting each other like most homicides are.
  3. Does a woman have the right to abort/kill her baby?  Is it not her body and her choice?  Clearly she has the right to use birth control. What about the rights of the baby, who cannot fight for their rights? Why can't we exercise that choice up until the child is 18 years old, when they reach legal adulthood?  What is the difference in killing them a little before being born or after being born.  More babies are aborted each year than soldiers died in the Civil War, a war fought to protect the rights of those who could not fight for themselves, much like unborn babies.
Already some have quit reading this, or are stewing about the issues above. The point is that our opinions on right and wrong may be too diverse to remain as one country, indivisible with liberty and justice for all.  

Permitting some of these states with strong beliefs that differ from the majority of the states should be permitted to leave the Union. This is a far better alternative to a Civil War. IF Texas were to leave the US, they would be the sixth largest oil exporter and would not require an income tax and still have a balanced budget. In addition we could better control our future with out being ran over by another liberal, tax and over spend, big government (Washington DC) in the future.

Unfortunately, our Federal Government would not want to give up the power and control over any states and many people within them would agree it is better to stay a part of the US.  For those that receive more federal benefits than they pay in, it clearly is.  So we are stuck with a few highly infested states and cities with radically different beliefs from the rest of the country.

So what happens when people with radically different beliefs take to the streets to first protest which turns in to Rioting & Looting.What is next if this grows and gets out of control, going after those who voted for the opposing candidate, or politicians who support differing opinions?

At this point, we are on the edge of a major civil unrest, possibly a civil war. Republicans in California or possibly even Democrats in Texas may be in danger (although Republicans and Texans are far less prone to violent protests).  Muslims, Immigrants, Gays, NRA members,  may be persecuted. While the NRA members will be the ones best positioned to protect themselves, the others could be in serious jeopardy.

At this point, there is safety in numbers, so having a Neighborhood Security Plan might be a good idea.  Having made a few preparations against Terrorism could save your life.  A Home Invasion Plan is a good idea along with a number of strategically located guns and fire extinguishers. While violent protests are much less likely in the country, having a Country Home Security Plan could still be a good idea.

But matters could get far worse than just rioting and looting when Liberals and Conservatives start firing on each other, and even worse when the US Military starts firing on US Citizens.There is a group of Law Enforcement Officers and Military Personnel who take their Oath to Support the US Constitution seriously, and refuse to obey certain illegal orders; these heroic people are called Oath Keepers.  We can only hope that our Government will let States like California and Texas exit the Union before it comes to a civil war. After all, if they joined freely, they should be able to exit freely. 

For additional information see the following links: 
Blog Table of Contents;
Urban Survival Plan
Country Home Security Plan
Passive Layered Security

Or click on a label below for similar topics.

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

First Aid

There are a wide range of First Aid kits so lets talk at a high level about what you need to have.  Some supplies may be Salvaged but it is best to plan ahead and have what is critical.  Here is what I suggest:

  1. Have a few small but good First Aid Kits with non perishable contents for personal use in your Auto, back pack, and at work.  Also have some small inexpensive kits as well as for Barter
  2. Then get at least one larger first aid kit preferably that is OSHA compliant.
  3. Be sure to have things like ace bandages, disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, antibiotic creams, Listerine mouthwash - rotate them as they will expire over time (their Achilles heel). 
  4. A Trauma Kit and Surgical tools plus needles, dental floss, nylon (fishing line), silk or surgical thread for sewing wounds is good to have.
  5. Have a still to make your own disinfectant (alcohol) and purify water.
  6. Antibiotics are great but have a shelf life to keep up with; listed on this link are a few good ones that last longer.
  7. Some inexpensive vitamins which can help boost your immune system, especially when on a limited diet. 
  8. Get a good First Aid book (not e-book).  The American College of Emergency Physicians has a good ACEP First Aid Manual and The Survival Medicine Handbook: A guide for when help is not on the way, is another good book.  When there is no Doctor/Dentist are also good books.

For additional information see the following links: 
Blog Table of Contents

Thursday, October 20, 2016

Survive on a deserted island


There is no right answer and every answer can be challenged.
Remember the Rule of 3 as you choose what you would want.

Here are some reasons why you might choose each item.
  1.  Tarp - provides shelter, catches water, could be a sail for the raft, could serve as a signal flag
  2.  Sunscreen - helps you avoid severe sunburn, possible illness and infection
  3.  Toilet Paper - Pick this because you are full of .... actually it could be tinder for starting a fire
  4.  Cooking Pot - cooking food, boiling, distilling or storing water
  5.  iPod - loneliness can be severe and hearing music could save your sanity
  6.  Boots - taking care of your feet is important, especially if you need to walk a great distance
  7. Handsaw - build shelter, cut fire wood
  8. Flare gun - signal for help, starting fire or possibly self defense
  9. Raft - sail away, shelter, capture water, bedding
  10. Flashlight - signal for help, light
  11. Insect Repellent - avoid illness from bug bites for a while
  12. Hammock - sleep in, carry supplies and use as a fish net or sun screen
  13. Compass - navigation on the island or if trying to sail to land
  14. Mirror - signal for help, check for parasites
  15. Vitamins - nutritional supplement while on a poor diet could help maintain your health
  16. Water Purifier - make water biologically safe to drink for a while, but will not remove salt
  17. Fishing Rod - Food, recreation, extending your reach to hook and catch things.
  18. Rope - build shelter, trap food, make fishing lines
  19. Hunting Rifle - protection & food, assuming you have ammo.
  20. Weed - die relaxed
  21. First Aid Kit - maintain your health and have a number of tools like emergency blanket
  22. Tent - shelter, insect protection, capture water for drinking or act as a sail for the raft
  23. Knife - often one of the first things selected to cut wood, make tools, cut food, protection
  24. Matches - build fire to cook and boil water until they run out
  25. Vollyball - Flotation device, recreation to maintain sanity and remember Wilson on Castaway
 Here are some suggestions:
1)  If I'm in the Atlantic where islands are close to shore, I pick the Raft, Tent, Fishing Rod and Flare Gun.  The raft will catch water, the tent provide shelter and act as a sail, the fishing rod will provide food and the Flare will signal someone.
2)  I'm in the Pacific where islands can be extremely far from the mainland, forget the raft and plan on staying a long time.  Take the Knife, Pot (water), Tent (shelter) and Fishing Rod for food.

For additional information see the following links:      
Blog Table of Contents

Survival Pack (Security Patrol or Bug Out pack)
Wilderness Survival Pack (Video)
Wilderness Survival
Alone Survival Show Pack Contents 
Alone Season 2 Pack Contents
Alone Season 3 Pack List

Edible Wild Plants
Greenbriar (catbriar)
Chickweed & Hackberries

Tuesday, October 18, 2016


 In 1199, King Richard the Lionhearted was struck by an arrow in his left shoulder. Today we would classify this is a minor injury, but with out antibiotics, it proved fatal for the King. As recent as the nineteenth century, doctors still amputated limbs for minor injuries because of their fear of gangrene.

So I think it is safe to say that Antibiotics are a MAJOR life saver.

The problem with many antibiotics is the shelf life is so short, but there are some that are reportedly good for up to 10 years after the expiration date, if stored in the refrigerator.

Some of the best all around antibiotics are available from pet supplies. If you buy them for Dogs it requires a prescription from a Vet, but if you get this same one for “fish” it does not.  Herre are the best from my research (see disclaimer at bottom of the page).
  1. Cefalexin also spelled Cephalexin is a broad spectrum multi-purpose antibiotic costing $30 to $50 per 100 for 250/500mg respectively or about 40 cents each making these the lowest cost option. Common brand names include Keflex and Ceporex. Cefalexin can treat certain bacterial infections, including those of the middle ear, bone and joint, skin, and urinary tract. It may also be used for certain types of pneumonia, strep throat, and to prevent bacterial endocarditis
  2. Amoxicillin is the most common antibotic. sells FishMox 250 mg at $14.27 for 30 tablets which is about 50 cents each.  At this cost, having a few in case the SHTF might be advisable.  This is a slightly higher price per tablet, but the lowest investment cost due to the small bottle (30 cnt).  So this might be my first purchase  if on a tight budget.
  3. Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprin, SMZ/TMP, aka Bactrim aka Fish Sulfa is used for urinary tract infections, MRSA skin infections, travelers' diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, and cholera, among others. It may be used both to treat and prevent pneumocystis pneumonia in people with HIV/AIDS.  This is an expensive product at over $1.00 per 960mg capsule.
All of these above are reportedly usable for up to 10 years refrigerated but Tetracycline shelf life is firm with what is listed on the label. The good point of Tetracycline is that the price for on hundred 500mg tablets is only about $10 from the VetDepot making them appear to be the lowest cost option at 10 cents each.  But since you must replace them each year, the 10 year cost is $1 each.

Antibiotics by class
Generic name Brand names Common uses[3] Possible side effects[3] Mechanism of action
Amikacin Amikin Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against Aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) and tularemia. All aminoglycosides are ineffective when taken orally as the stomach will digest the drug before it goes into the bloodstream. However aminoglycosides are effective in Intravenous, intramuscular and topical forms. Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work by binding to the 50S subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.
Gentamicin Garamycin
Kanamycin Kantrex
Neomycin Neo-Fradin[4]
Netilmicin Netromycin
Tobramycin Nebcin
Paromomycin Humatin
Spectinomycin(Bs) Trobicin Gonorrhea

Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics

Rifaximin Xifaxan Traveler's diarrhea caused by E. coli

Loracarbef Lorabid Discontinued
prevents bacterial cell division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
Ertapenem Invanz Bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial coverage. (Notes: MRSA resistance to this class. All are active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa except ertapenem.)
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Headache
  • Rash and allergic reactions
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Doripenem Doribax
Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin
Meropenem Merrem
Cephalosporins (First generation)
Cefadroxil Duricef Good coverage against Gram-positive infections.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefazolin Ancef
Cefalotin or Cefalothin Keflin (discontinued)
Cefalexin Keflex
Cephalosporins (Second generation)
Cefaclor Distaclor Less Gram-positive cover, improved Gram-negative cover.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefamandole Mandol (discontinued)
Cefoxitin Mefoxin (discontinued)
Cefprozil Cefzil
Cefuroxime Ceftin, Zinnat (UK)
Cephalosporins (Third generation)
Cefixime (antagonistic with Chloramphenicol)[5] Cefspan (Fujisawa) Improved coverage of Gram-negative organisms, except Pseudomonas. Reduced Gram-positive cover. But still not cover Mycoplasma and Chlamydia
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefdinir Omnicef, Cefdiel
Cefditoren Spectracef, Meiact
Cefoperazone [Unlike most third-generation agents, cefoperazone is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa], combination Cefoperazone with Sulbactam makes more effective antibiotic, because Sulbactam avoid degeneration of Cefoperazone Cefobid (discontinued)
Cefotaxime Claforan
Cefpodoxime Vantin
Ceftazidime (Unlike most third-generation agents, ceftazidime is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but less active against Staphylococci and Streptococci compare to other 3rd generation of cephalosporins) Fortaz
Ceftibuten Cedax
Ceftizoxime Cefizox (discontinued)
Ceftriaxone (IV and IM, not orally, effective also for syphilis and uncomplicated gonorrhea) Rocephin
Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)
Cefepime Maxipime Covers pseudomonal infections.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cephalosporins (Fifth generation)
Ceftaroline fosamil Teflaro Used to treat MRSA
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergic reaction
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Ceftobiprole Zeftera Used to treat MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enterococci
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Teicoplanin Targocid (UK) Active against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA; Vancomycin is used orally for the treatment of C. difficile colitis
Inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis.
Vancomycin Vancocin
Telavancin Vibativ
Dalbavancin Dalvance
Oritavancin Orbactiv
Clindamycin Cleocin Serious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal infections in penicillin-allergic patients, also anaerobic infections; clindamycin topically for acne Possible C. difficile-related pseudomembranous enterocolitis Binds to 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomal RNA thereby inhibiting protein synthesis.
Lincomycin Lincocin
Daptomycin Cubicin Gram-positive organisms, but is inhibited by pulmonary surfactant so less effective against pneumonias
Binds to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis.
Azithromycin Zithromax, Sumamed, Xithrone Streptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (especially at higher doses)
  • Prolonged cardiac QT interval (especially erythromycin)
  • Hearing loss (especially at higher doses)
  • Jaundice
Inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA.
Clarithromycin Biaxin
Dirithromycin Dynabac (discontinued)
Erythromycin Erythocin, Erythroped
Troleandomycin Tao (discontinued)
Telithromycin Ketek Pneumonia Visual Disturbance, Liver Toxicity.[6]
Spiramycin Rovamycine Mouth infections
Aztreonam Azactam Gram-negative bacteria
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Furazolidone Furoxone Bacterial or protozoal diarrhea or enteritis

Nitrofurantoin(Bs) Macrodantin, Macrobid Urinary tract infections

Linezolid Zyvox VRSA Protein synthesis inhibitor; prevents the initiation step
Posizolid Phase II clinical trials

Radezolid Phase II clinical trials

Torezolid Phase II clinical trials

Amoxicillin Novamox, Amoxil Wide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme disease
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions
  • Brain and kidney damage (rare)
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Ampicillin Principen (discontinued)
Carbenicillin Geocillin (discontinued)
Cloxacillin Tegopen (discontinued)
Dicloxacillin Dynapen (discontinued)
Flucloxacillin Floxapen (Sold to European generics Actavis Group)
Mezlocillin Mezlin (discontinued)
Methicillin Staphcillin (discontinued)
Nafcillin Unipen (discontinued)
Oxacillin Prostaphlin (discontinued)
Penicillin G Pentids (discontinued)
Penicillin V Veetids (Pen-Vee-K) (discontinued)
Piperacillin Pipracil (discontinued)
Penicillin G Pfizerpen
Temocillin Negaban (UK) (discontinued)
Ticarcillin Ticar (discontinued)

Penicillin combinations
Amoxicillin/clavulanate Augmentin Both Amoxicillin/clavulanate and Ampicillin/sulbactam are effective against non-recurrent acute otitis media.[7] Amoxicillin/clavulanate is one of the few oral antibiotics effective against skin and soft tissue infections. Not to be given to children less than 40 kilograms in weight; for children heavier, the dosage is same as adults, twice daily.[8]
The second component reduces the effectiveness of some forms of bacterial resistance to the first component
Ampicillin/sulbactam Unasyn
Piperacillin/tazobactam Zosyn
Ticarcillin/clavulanate Timentin
Eye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection, although the use of intravenous colistin is experiencing a resurgence due to the emergence of multi drug resistant organisms. Kidney and nerve damage (when given by injection) Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane[9]
Colistin Coly-Mycin-S Interact with the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane, displacing bacterial counterions, which destabilizes the outer membrane. Act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability. Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution.
Polymyxin B
Ciprofloxacin Cipro, Ciproxin, Ciprobay Urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrhea Nausea (rare), irreversible damage to central nervous system (uncommon), tendinosis (rare) Inhibits the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription.
Enoxacin Penetrex
Gatifloxacin Tequin
Gemifloxacin Factive[10]
Levofloxacin Levaquin
Lomefloxacin Maxaquin
Moxifloxacin Avelox
Nalidixic acid NegGram
Norfloxacin Noroxin
Ofloxacin Floxin (discontinued), Ocuflox
Trovafloxacin Trovan Withdrawn
Grepafloxacin Raxar Withdrawn
Sparfloxacin Zagam Withdrawn
Temafloxacin Omniflox Withdrawn

Mafenide Sulfamylon Urinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns) Folate synthesis inhibition. They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS. DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA (para-aminobenzoate) to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells cannot divide.
Sulfacetamide Sulamyd, Bleph-10
Sulfadiazine Micro-Sulfon
Silver sulfadiazine Silvadene
Sulfadimethoxine Di-Methox, Albon
Sulfamethizole Thiosulfil Forte
Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol
Sulfanilimide (archaic)
Sulfasalazine Azulfidine
Sulfisoxazole Gantrisin
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Bactrim, Septra
Sulfonamidochrysoidine (archaic) Prontosil
Demeclocycline Declomycin Syphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections, malaria[note 1]
  • Gastrointestinal upset
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
  • Enamel hypoplasia (staining of teeth; potentially permanent)
  • transient depression of bone growth
Inhibits the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA translation complex. But Tetracycline cannot be taken together with all dairy products, aluminium, iron and zinc minerals.
Doxycycline Vibramycin
Minocycline Minocin
Oxytetracycline Terramycin
Tetracycline Sumycin, Achromycin V, Steclin
Drugs against mycobacteria
Clofazimine Lamprene Antileprotic

Dapsone Avlosulfon Antileprotic

Capreomycin Capastat Antituberculosis

Cycloserine Seromycin Antituberculosis, urinary tract infections

Ethambutol(Bs) Myambutol Antituberculosis

Ethionamide Trecator Antituberculosis
Inhibits peptide synthesis
Isoniazid I.N.H. Antituberculosis

Pyrazinamide Aldinamide Antituberculosis

Rifampicin (Rifampin in US) Rifadin, Rimactane mostly Gram-positive and mycobacteria Reddish-orange sweat, tears, and urine Binds to the β subunit of RNA polymerase to inhibit transcription
Rifabutin Mycobutin Mycobacterium avium complex Rash, discolored urine, GI symptoms
Rifapentine Priftin Antituberculosis

Antituberculosis Neurotoxicity, ototoxicity As other aminoglycosides
Arsphenamine Salvarsan Spirochaetal infections (obsolete)

Chloramphenicol(Bs) Chloromycetin Meningitis, MRSA, topical use, or for low-cost internal treatment. Historic: typhus, cholera. Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes Rarely: aplastic anemia. Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
Fosfomycin Monurol, Monuril Acute cystitis in women This antibiotic is not recommended for children and 75 up of age Inactivates enolpyruvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis
Fusidic acid Fucidin

Metronidazole Flagyl Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; also amoebiasis, trichomoniasis, giardiasis Discolored urine, headache, metallic taste, nausea; alcohol is contraindicated Produces toxic free radicals that disrupt DNA and proteins. This non-specific mechanism is responsible for its activity against a variety of bacteria, amoebae, and protozoa.
Mupirocin Bactroban Ointment for impetigo, cream for infected cuts
Inhibits isoleucine t-RNA synthetase (IleRS) causing inhibition of protein synthesis

Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Synercid

Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes. Widely used in veterinary medicine. Rash. Lacks known anemic side-effects. A chloramphenicol analog. May inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
Tigecycline(Bs) Tigacyl Slowly Intravenous. Indicated for complicated skin/skin structure infections, soft tissues infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Effective for gram positive and negative and also anaerob antibiotics, against multi-resistant antibiotics bacteries such as Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii, but not effective for Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus spp. Teeth discoloration and same side effects as tetracycline. Not to be given for children and pregnant or lactate women. Relatively safe and no need dose adjusted when be given for mild to moderate liver function or renal patients Similar structure with tetracycline, but 5 times stronger, big volume distribution and long half-time in the body
Tinidazole Tindamax Fasigyn Protozoal infections Upset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness
Trimethoprim(Bs) Proloprim, Trimpex Urinary tract infections

Generic Name Brand Names Common Uses[3] Possible Side Effects[3] Mechanism of action


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