Tuesday, October 18, 2016


 In 1199, King Richard the Lionhearted was struck by an arrow in his left shoulder. Today we would classify this is a minor injury, but with out antibiotics, it proved fatal for the King. As recent as the nineteenth century, doctors still amputated limbs for minor injuries because of their fear of gangrene.

So I think it is safe to say that Antibiotics are a MAJOR life saver.

The problem with many antibiotics is the shelf life is so short, but there are some that are reportedly good for up to 10 years after the expiration date, if stored in the refrigerator.

Some of the best all around antibiotics are available from pet supplies. If you buy them for Dogs it requires a prescription from a Vet, but if you get this same one for “fish” it does not.  Herre are the best from my research (see disclaimer at bottom of the page).
  1. Cefalexin also spelled Cephalexin is a broad spectrum multi-purpose antibiotic costing $30 to $50 per 100 for 250/500mg respectively or about 40 cents each making these the lowest cost option. Common brand names include Keflex and Ceporex. Cefalexin can treat certain bacterial infections, including those of the middle ear, bone and joint, skin, and urinary tract. It may also be used for certain types of pneumonia, strep throat, and to prevent bacterial endocarditis
  2. Amoxicillin is the most common antibotic. Vetdepot.com sells FishMox 250 mg at $14.27 for 30 tablets which is about 50 cents each.  At this cost, having a few in case the SHTF might be advisable.  This is a slightly higher price per tablet, but the lowest investment cost due to the small bottle (30 cnt).  So this might be my first purchase  if on a tight budget.
  3. Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprin, SMZ/TMP, aka Bactrim aka Fish Sulfa is used for urinary tract infections, MRSA skin infections, travelers' diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, and cholera, among others. It may be used both to treat and prevent pneumocystis pneumonia in people with HIV/AIDS.  This is an expensive product at over $1.00 per 960mg capsule.
All of these above are reportedly usable for up to 10 years refrigerated but Tetracycline shelf life is firm with what is listed on the label. The good point of Tetracycline is that the price for on hundred 500mg tablets is only about $10 from the VetDepot making them appear to be the lowest cost option at 10 cents each.  But since you must replace them each year, the 10 year cost is $1 each.

Antibiotics by class
Generic name Brand names Common uses[3] Possible side effects[3] Mechanism of action
Amikacin Amikin Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against Aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) and tularemia. All aminoglycosides are ineffective when taken orally as the stomach will digest the drug before it goes into the bloodstream. However aminoglycosides are effective in Intravenous, intramuscular and topical forms. Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work by binding to the 50S subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.
Gentamicin Garamycin
Kanamycin Kantrex
Neomycin Neo-Fradin[4]
Netilmicin Netromycin
Tobramycin Nebcin
Paromomycin Humatin
Spectinomycin(Bs) Trobicin Gonorrhea

Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics

Rifaximin Xifaxan Traveler's diarrhea caused by E. coli

Loracarbef Lorabid Discontinued
prevents bacterial cell division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
Ertapenem Invanz Bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial coverage. (Notes: MRSA resistance to this class. All are active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa except ertapenem.)
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Headache
  • Rash and allergic reactions
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Doripenem Doribax
Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin
Meropenem Merrem
Cephalosporins (First generation)
Cefadroxil Duricef Good coverage against Gram-positive infections.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefazolin Ancef
Cefalotin or Cefalothin Keflin (discontinued)
Cefalexin Keflex
Cephalosporins (Second generation)
Cefaclor Distaclor Less Gram-positive cover, improved Gram-negative cover.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefamandole Mandol (discontinued)
Cefoxitin Mefoxin (discontinued)
Cefprozil Cefzil
Cefuroxime Ceftin, Zinnat (UK)
Cephalosporins (Third generation)
Cefixime (antagonistic with Chloramphenicol)[5] Cefspan (Fujisawa) Improved coverage of Gram-negative organisms, except Pseudomonas. Reduced Gram-positive cover. But still not cover Mycoplasma and Chlamydia
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cefdinir Omnicef, Cefdiel
Cefditoren Spectracef, Meiact
Cefoperazone [Unlike most third-generation agents, cefoperazone is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa], combination Cefoperazone with Sulbactam makes more effective antibiotic, because Sulbactam avoid degeneration of Cefoperazone Cefobid (discontinued)
Cefotaxime Claforan
Cefpodoxime Vantin
Ceftazidime (Unlike most third-generation agents, ceftazidime is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but less active against Staphylococci and Streptococci compare to other 3rd generation of cephalosporins) Fortaz
Ceftibuten Cedax
Ceftizoxime Cefizox (discontinued)
Ceftriaxone (IV and IM, not orally, effective also for syphilis and uncomplicated gonorrhea) Rocephin
Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)
Cefepime Maxipime Covers pseudomonal infections.
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Cephalosporins (Fifth generation)
Ceftaroline fosamil Teflaro Used to treat MRSA
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergic reaction
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Ceftobiprole Zeftera Used to treat MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enterococci
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Teicoplanin Targocid (UK) Active against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA; Vancomycin is used orally for the treatment of C. difficile colitis
Inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis.
Vancomycin Vancocin
Telavancin Vibativ
Dalbavancin Dalvance
Oritavancin Orbactiv
Clindamycin Cleocin Serious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal infections in penicillin-allergic patients, also anaerobic infections; clindamycin topically for acne Possible C. difficile-related pseudomembranous enterocolitis Binds to 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomal RNA thereby inhibiting protein synthesis.
Lincomycin Lincocin
Daptomycin Cubicin Gram-positive organisms, but is inhibited by pulmonary surfactant so less effective against pneumonias
Binds to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis.
Azithromycin Zithromax, Sumamed, Xithrone Streptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (especially at higher doses)
  • Prolonged cardiac QT interval (especially erythromycin)
  • Hearing loss (especially at higher doses)
  • Jaundice
Inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA.
Clarithromycin Biaxin
Dirithromycin Dynabac (discontinued)
Erythromycin Erythocin, Erythroped
Troleandomycin Tao (discontinued)
Telithromycin Ketek Pneumonia Visual Disturbance, Liver Toxicity.[6]
Spiramycin Rovamycine Mouth infections
Aztreonam Azactam Gram-negative bacteria
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Furazolidone Furoxone Bacterial or protozoal diarrhea or enteritis

Nitrofurantoin(Bs) Macrodantin, Macrobid Urinary tract infections

Linezolid Zyvox VRSA Protein synthesis inhibitor; prevents the initiation step
Posizolid Phase II clinical trials

Radezolid Phase II clinical trials

Torezolid Phase II clinical trials

Amoxicillin Novamox, Amoxil Wide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme disease
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions
  • Brain and kidney damage (rare)
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
Ampicillin Principen (discontinued)
Carbenicillin Geocillin (discontinued)
Cloxacillin Tegopen (discontinued)
Dicloxacillin Dynapen (discontinued)
Flucloxacillin Floxapen (Sold to European generics Actavis Group)
Mezlocillin Mezlin (discontinued)
Methicillin Staphcillin (discontinued)
Nafcillin Unipen (discontinued)
Oxacillin Prostaphlin (discontinued)
Penicillin G Pentids (discontinued)
Penicillin V Veetids (Pen-Vee-K) (discontinued)
Piperacillin Pipracil (discontinued)
Penicillin G Pfizerpen
Temocillin Negaban (UK) (discontinued)
Ticarcillin Ticar (discontinued)

Penicillin combinations
Amoxicillin/clavulanate Augmentin Both Amoxicillin/clavulanate and Ampicillin/sulbactam are effective against non-recurrent acute otitis media.[7] Amoxicillin/clavulanate is one of the few oral antibiotics effective against skin and soft tissue infections. Not to be given to children less than 40 kilograms in weight; for children heavier, the dosage is same as adults, twice daily.[8]
The second component reduces the effectiveness of some forms of bacterial resistance to the first component
Ampicillin/sulbactam Unasyn
Piperacillin/tazobactam Zosyn
Ticarcillin/clavulanate Timentin
Eye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection, although the use of intravenous colistin is experiencing a resurgence due to the emergence of multi drug resistant organisms. Kidney and nerve damage (when given by injection) Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane[9]
Colistin Coly-Mycin-S Interact with the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane, displacing bacterial counterions, which destabilizes the outer membrane. Act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability. Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution.
Polymyxin B
Ciprofloxacin Cipro, Ciproxin, Ciprobay Urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrhea Nausea (rare), irreversible damage to central nervous system (uncommon), tendinosis (rare) Inhibits the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription.
Enoxacin Penetrex
Gatifloxacin Tequin
Gemifloxacin Factive[10]
Levofloxacin Levaquin
Lomefloxacin Maxaquin
Moxifloxacin Avelox
Nalidixic acid NegGram
Norfloxacin Noroxin
Ofloxacin Floxin (discontinued), Ocuflox
Trovafloxacin Trovan Withdrawn
Grepafloxacin Raxar Withdrawn
Sparfloxacin Zagam Withdrawn
Temafloxacin Omniflox Withdrawn

Mafenide Sulfamylon Urinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns) Folate synthesis inhibition. They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS. DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA (para-aminobenzoate) to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells cannot divide.
Sulfacetamide Sulamyd, Bleph-10
Sulfadiazine Micro-Sulfon
Silver sulfadiazine Silvadene
Sulfadimethoxine Di-Methox, Albon
Sulfamethizole Thiosulfil Forte
Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol
Sulfanilimide (archaic)
Sulfasalazine Azulfidine
Sulfisoxazole Gantrisin
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Bactrim, Septra
Sulfonamidochrysoidine (archaic) Prontosil
Demeclocycline Declomycin Syphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections, malaria[note 1]
  • Gastrointestinal upset
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
  • Enamel hypoplasia (staining of teeth; potentially permanent)
  • transient depression of bone growth
Inhibits the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex. They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA translation complex. But Tetracycline cannot be taken together with all dairy products, aluminium, iron and zinc minerals.
Doxycycline Vibramycin
Minocycline Minocin
Oxytetracycline Terramycin
Tetracycline Sumycin, Achromycin V, Steclin
Drugs against mycobacteria
Clofazimine Lamprene Antileprotic

Dapsone Avlosulfon Antileprotic

Capreomycin Capastat Antituberculosis

Cycloserine Seromycin Antituberculosis, urinary tract infections

Ethambutol(Bs) Myambutol Antituberculosis

Ethionamide Trecator Antituberculosis
Inhibits peptide synthesis
Isoniazid I.N.H. Antituberculosis

Pyrazinamide Aldinamide Antituberculosis

Rifampicin (Rifampin in US) Rifadin, Rimactane mostly Gram-positive and mycobacteria Reddish-orange sweat, tears, and urine Binds to the β subunit of RNA polymerase to inhibit transcription
Rifabutin Mycobutin Mycobacterium avium complex Rash, discolored urine, GI symptoms
Rifapentine Priftin Antituberculosis

Antituberculosis Neurotoxicity, ototoxicity As other aminoglycosides
Arsphenamine Salvarsan Spirochaetal infections (obsolete)

Chloramphenicol(Bs) Chloromycetin Meningitis, MRSA, topical use, or for low-cost internal treatment. Historic: typhus, cholera. Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes Rarely: aplastic anemia. Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
Fosfomycin Monurol, Monuril Acute cystitis in women This antibiotic is not recommended for children and 75 up of age Inactivates enolpyruvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis
Fusidic acid Fucidin

Metronidazole Flagyl Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; also amoebiasis, trichomoniasis, giardiasis Discolored urine, headache, metallic taste, nausea; alcohol is contraindicated Produces toxic free radicals that disrupt DNA and proteins. This non-specific mechanism is responsible for its activity against a variety of bacteria, amoebae, and protozoa.
Mupirocin Bactroban Ointment for impetigo, cream for infected cuts
Inhibits isoleucine t-RNA synthetase (IleRS) causing inhibition of protein synthesis

Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Synercid

Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes. Widely used in veterinary medicine. Rash. Lacks known anemic side-effects. A chloramphenicol analog. May inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
Tigecycline(Bs) Tigacyl Slowly Intravenous. Indicated for complicated skin/skin structure infections, soft tissues infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Effective for gram positive and negative and also anaerob antibiotics, against multi-resistant antibiotics bacteries such as Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii, but not effective for Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus spp. Teeth discoloration and same side effects as tetracycline. Not to be given for children and pregnant or lactate women. Relatively safe and no need dose adjusted when be given for mild to moderate liver function or renal patients Similar structure with tetracycline, but 5 times stronger, big volume distribution and long half-time in the body
Tinidazole Tindamax Fasigyn Protozoal infections Upset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness
Trimethoprim(Bs) Proloprim, Trimpex Urinary tract infections

Generic Name Brand Names Common Uses[3] Possible Side Effects[3] Mechanism of action


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